Types of mental healthTypes of mental health: We know a wide variety of mental health of very different types. Although each disorder has its own characteristics that distinguish them from each other, in many cases they have common points, such as etiology or symptoms, which make them grouped into specific categories, and classification can be made in different types.
This type of nosological classifications is used by various professionals in the field of health in order to know and work with different types of disorders. Therefore, in this article, we are going to talk about the main types of mental illnesses.
|Types of mental health | The 18 types of mental illness|
The types of mental illnessClassifying the different types of mental health is a complex task that requires a deep research task. Throughout history, various associations and groups of experts have tried to classify them, with more or less acceptance on the part of the scientific community. These categorizations allow organizing theoretical knowledge in a more easily understandable way, although there is a risk of ignoring or separating specific aspects that could be closely linked.
Below is a brief description of most of the basic types of mental health that the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or DSM-V offers. Although it is not the only existing classification, given that organizations such as the WHO have their own system in this regard in the ICD-10 (specifically in chapter F, where the different mental disorders are detailed), the classification system and the criteria Diagnoses tend to be very similar.
The list presented here is only one of the possible classifications of the types of mental illnesses that have been carried out, and the main groupings may vary greatly depending on who performs them, and modifications that are sometimes controversial with respect to previous versions may occur.
1. Neurodevelopmental disordersMental diseases linked to alterations in neurodevelopment form a type of mental health characterized by the presence of a series of deficits and difficulties in different abilities and abilities that manifest themselves during the maturational development of the person, appearing the first symptoms during childhood.
These difficulties represent a mishap due both to the difficulty itself and to the possible slowing of maturation and the effects that both short and long term can cause in vital aspects of the person. Within this category, we can find difficulties such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, ADHD or learning disorders, communication or motor.
2. Spectrum disorders of schizophrenia and other psychotic disordersThe study of psychotic disorders has been a fundamental pillar in the psychology and research of mental health.
This type of disease has common symptomatology, and it is the presence of symptoms that are both positive, that is, they add or exaggerate some aspect of the normative behavior, as well as negative ones, in which the capacity of the subject is diminished and impoverished.
Among the most well-known positive symptoms is the presence of perceptive hallucinations and cognitive delusions of different types, while among the negatives, anhedonia, impoverishment of language and alogia are common. On the other hand, within this type of disorders, schizophrenia stands out, but we can also find schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder.
3. Bipolar disorder and related disordersThe bipolar disorder is a type of mental illness characterized by alternating between two opposite emotional poles, mania (or hypomania if symptoms are less) and depression.
This alternation produces severe emotional exhaustion in the patient, who goes from being completely euphoric and with a very high level of energy to a situation of sadness, demotivation, and despair. In addition to bipolar disorder and its different subtypes, we can find other disorders within this category, such as cyclothymic disorder.
4. Depressive disordersThe major depression is one of the most prevalent psychological disorders worldwide, being the highlight disorder within the category of depressive disorders.
The basic characteristics of this type of mental illness are based on the presence of a state of pathological and persistent sadness accompanied by anhedonia or lack of pleasure and/or apathy. It is frequent that there is a great passivity at the vital level due to the lack of motivation and despair. In fact, more than the sadness that characterizes depressive disorders is the lack of initiative and interest, something that is often expressed in a symptom known as abulia.
In addition to major depressive disorder, you can find other types of pathologies such as dysthymia, postpartum depression, and even premenstrual syndrome.
5. Anxiety disordersThe most frequent type of mental disorder, both in the consultation and in the general population, anxiety disorders can be identified due to the high level of psychophysiological activation they cause along with the presence of a high negative affect or discomfort.
Often these characteristics are accompanied by a strong attempt to avoid things or situations that cause anxiety and may be very limiting disorders in daily life. Within this class of mental disorders include, among others, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia ), generalized anxiety disorder and different types of phobias (social, specific, etc.).
On the other hand, we must bear in mind that it is possible to develop phobias before practically any stimulus or idea provided certain conditions are met.
6. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and relatedThis type of disease of the OCD environment is characterized by the presence of a profile of rigid and inflexible behavior, the presence of doubts and a certain level of perfectionism. But the most distinctive and characteristic of this category is the presence of obsessions, intrusive and repetitive ideas that are recognized as their own and in general as absurd by the subject itself.
These ideas generate high anxiety, and may or may not be accompanied by compulsions or stereotyped actions to reduce this anxiety (although they do not usually have a logical relationship with the reason for this or that relationship is exaggerated). Because the symptoms are predominantly due to anxiety, they were previously considered to be among the anxiety disorders, but their differential characteristics have caused them to be separated from them.
The mental disorder par excellence of this category is an obsessive-compulsive disorder. The body dysmorphic disorder or trichotillomania are disorders in the latest version of the DSM they have also been included in this category, although they were classified in the past as dissociative and impulse control disorder respectively. This is due to the presence of an obsessive-type thought (specifically with a body area) and the presence of a specific compulsion in the presence of anxiety (plucking the hair).
7. Trauma and other disorders related to stressThis type of mental disorder is based on the experience of certain life circumstances, or the presence or absence of a specific stressor, which being lived in an extremely aversive by the person cause in the subject a pattern of behavior different from what he would have if I had not experienced such situations, and that produces a lot of discomfort in the form of a crisis.
The most characteristic disorder of this type of psychopathology is post-traumatic stress disorder, which is especially common in people who have lived through armed conflicts.
8. Dissociative disordersSome vital circumstances cause the mind to react in an anomalous way, causing dissociation of its basic mechanisms and processes, such as memory or identity. Formerly one of the two types of mental illness that were considered typical of hysteria, these disorders include dissociative amnesia, depersonalization or multiple personality disorder.
9. Disorder due to somatic symptoms and related disordersThe other and main element that was considered as a symptom of hysteria, the presence of disorders by somatic symptoms. This type of mental illness has as its main feature the presence of physical symptoms without there being any physiological cause for it, the physical symptoms being the product of one's own mind. Emphasizes somatoform disorder (now by somatic symptoms), conversion disorder or hypochondria.
10. Eating disordersAnorexia and bulimia nervosa are mental disorders that we often hear about. These two types of mental illness are two of the main eating disorders, which are known for the presence of abnormal eating patterns.
Although in the two examples cited these patterns are characterized by a certain distortion of the body image and the presence of an intense fear of gaining weight, rejecting the consumption of food or doing behaviors that force the elimination of calories, the same is not the case in all mental illnesses in this category, which also includes pique or consumption of non-nutritious substances (for example, gypsum), or excessive consumption of food due to anxiety or binge eating disorder .
11. Disorders of excretionThe feeding and nutrition contribute fundamental nutrients to the organism in order that it can work correctly, but in a given moment the surplus elements have to be expelled from the body.
In the case of people with disorders of excretion, such expulsion occurs in inappropriate and uncontrolled circumstances, sometimes as a consequence of anxiety. In this aspect, enuresis and encopresis stand out, in which urine or feces are excreted, respectively.
12. Sleep-wake disordersSleep problems are also very prevalent in societies like ours. These problems can be due to a lack of sleep or insomnia or excess of this, or hypersomnia. In both cases, fatigue, demotivation and, in some cases, memory and attention problems are caused.
In addition, rare behaviors during sleep known as parasomnias may appear. Disorders such as nightmares, sleepwalking or Kleine-Levin syndrome are examples of this category together with insomnia and primary hypersomnia.
13. Sexual dysfunctionsAlthough even today it is a very silenced subject and considered taboo, there is a wide variety of sexual problems. Sexual dysfunctions are composed of those disorders that alter, impede or hinder the achievement of different phases of human sexual response, appearing mainly at the level of desire, excitement or orgasm.
Premature ejaculation, problems of erection, anorgasmia or inhibited sexual desire are some of the disorders of this kind that are most consulted in the clinic.
14. Destructive disorders of impulse control and behaviorThis classification refers to the presence of a sudden impulse characterized by a high level of activation and anguish that the individual is unable or has severe difficulties to resist, due to the deep gratification and well-being he receives with his behavior. An example is an intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania or pyromania.
15. Substance use disorders and addictive disordersThe consumption and abuse of psychoactive substances can cause serious problems in the body. Within this type of problems, we find addiction, dependence, intoxication and abstinence to very different types of substances, whether they are stimulating, depressing or disturbing.
16. Neurocognitive disordersNeurocognitive disorders refer to that group of disorders that cause an alteration in consciousness or in higher mental processes due to a disturbance at the neuronal level. Confusional syndromes, delirium or neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia fall within this classification.
17. Paraphilic disordersThe so-called paraphilias are a type of mental illness characterized by the presence of intense and persistent fantasies in which the object of sexual desire is anomalous, generally having some compulsive fixation in those types of stimuli that interfere in life or cause discomfort.
It usually refers to situations in which the object of desire is an inanimate object or entity, a non-consenting being or the suffering or humiliation of one of the components. Some disorders of this type include voyeurism, exhibitionism, sexual sadism, masochism or pedophilia.
18. Personality disordersEach of us has a personality of our own, developed throughout our lives based on our experiences, in which it is possible to observe the tendency to respond in certain ways to the stimuli of the environment. The kind of behavior we do and usually do, as we analyze and observe the world and even our own identity are mediated by the personality.
This type of mental illness involves the presence of a personality that supposes a high level of suffering to the person who has it or greatly limits their life and participation in the world. The borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality, histrionic personality disorder, obsessive personality or avoidant personality are some of the disorders that are part of this classification.
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